Zahm Courtyard Monuments

The Zahm Courtyard, tucked down in a small hollow on East Wheelock Street between the Hanover Inn and the Hopkins Center for the Arts, is home to the largest collection of war memorials on Dartmouth's campus.  Since the below excerpt was written, renovations to the first floors of the Hanover Inn have transformed the Zahm courtyard from a hidden depression easily passed-by -- trafficked only by students seeking a back way into the Hinman Post Office -- into a thoroughfare for those accessing the Inn's many conference rooms or the Hopkins Center's art galleries.  The improvements make this area less contemplative and more visible, inviting us to reflect on the significance of each memorial residing here and what they contribute to the whole.

With only one exception, all of Dartmouth's memorials for World War II, Korea, and Vietnam have been brought together and grouped in the Zahm Courtyard, a remarkably tranquil spot named for George G. Zahm, Class of 1925. Its monument, plantings and benches encourage private meditation, while the total setting gives definition to the Wheelock Street entrance to Hopkins Center's Hinman Post Office.

Class of 1943 Reflecting Pool and Sculpture
Leaving aside the large sundial, a so-called Greenwich armillary sphere, that honors Mr. Zahm's memory, the most prominent feature of the courtyard itself is undoubtedly its reflecting pool, the class of 1943's memorial.  In its middle and flanked by two small fountains stands a bronze female figure by the English sculptor Thomas Bayliss Huxtable-Jones.  Barefoot, clad in a seemingly diaphanous toga-like garment, and with hands clutching tightly to her sides, fingers outstretched, the figure bends at both waist and knees to assume a vaguely S-shaped stance as she lists eyes and head to the sky, either keening the dead or simply praying.  A plaque at pool's edge completes the memorial with quiet restraint.
 

GIFT OF THE CLASS OF 1943

IN MEMORY OF OUR CLASSMATES
WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES
IN DEFENSE OF OUR FREEDOM
1942 - 45 

 
World War II and the Korean War
Twenty-three of those classmates so gave their lives, and like the dead of the Class of 1945 their names appear only on the principal memorial for World War II, a large rectangular plaque found at the western edge of the courtyard, on the east wall of the Daniel Webster Room of the Hanover Inn.  Under the heading "A RECORD OF THEIR FAME"--a quotation again taken from Hovey's "Men of Dartmouth"-- its granite lists the names of all Dartmouth alumni who died in World War II, 310 of them drawn from 31 classes stretching as far back as 1902 and ending only with the Class of 1947.  In fact, the plaque is even more inclusive than that, for as its subheading puts it, this record of their fame really includes all "DARTMOUTH ALUMNI WHO HAVE THEIR LIVES IN WORLD WAR II AND THE KOREAN WAR"


 
"A RECORD OF THEIR FAME"
DARTMOUTH ALUMNI WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES
IN WORLD WAR II AND THE KOREAN WAR

(Row 1) 1902 - Kendall Banning - 1904 - Michael Dailey - 1910 John W.H. Forbes - Ernest G. Small - 1914 - Horace L. Borden  Paul H. Hazelton - 1917 - Roy D. Halloran - Harold A. Syrn - 1918 - Robert F. Morrison
(Row 2) 1919 - Nelson S. McCraw - Robert M. Newcomb - 1920 - John G. Fowler - Gustave Sonnenberg - 1922 - Evan A. Woodward - 1923 - Walter H. Kurtz - William M. Lyons - 1924 - Edward P. Hale - Jay E. Tremaine 
(Row 3) 1926 - Maurice Quint - 1927 - Frederick D. MacMillan - James S. Neary - Robert L. Reinhardt - Harry J. Zimmerman - 1928 - Gordon M. Jamison - John W. Shoyer - Edward B. Wheatley
(Row 4) 1929 - Stephen L. Fuld - John L. Gill - Paul Waterman - 1930 - Ralph B. Hartmann - Kenneth K. Kull - Warren G. Parish - George A. Sarles - 1931 - James D. Gorrie - Oscar - Handley Jr. - Robert W. St. Louis
(Row 5) 1932 - Michael M. Allison Jr. - Bernard F. Brown - Orrin F. Crankshaw - William L. Harlow - Benjamin B. Hill - Morgan L. Hobart - George Pettengill 3rd - Frederick S. Roe - Percy G. Stone
(Row 6) John A. Titcomb - 1933 - Charles Y. Allen - Denman Fowler - Julien D. Goell - George R. Metzger Jr. - Harold G. Payne Jr. - Ford K. Sayre - W. Clark Schmidt - 1934 - Martin H. Braun - George R. Roppenrath
(Row 7) Gerald M. Hall - Thomoas Leslie - 1935 - James V. Aieta Jr. - Charles L. Berry - William W. Bradt - Carl O. Fischer - Robert N. Lavers - Richard C. Lintleman - John H. Mullen - Bradley Reeves
(Row 8) Fred A. Samara - 1936 - Robert P. Chase - Edward H. Edwards - Benjamin F. Farber Jr. - Victor W. Gates - Richard J. Huerth - Daniel P. McEndy - Gilbert S. Portmore - Kenneth C. Robincon
(Row 9) John W.N. Schulz Jr. - Stephen W. Smith Jr. - Charles M. Stern Jr. - 1937 - John N. Anderson Jr. - Herbert E. Bottjer - William J. Burford - Gayle W. Dearborn - Edward T. Jenkins 3rd - John J. Morris
(Row 10) Uri A. Munro - Thomas W. Prentice Jr. - Jean H. Wolfs - 1938 - Frederick W.V. Blees - Leon W. Canfield - Everett J. Dearman Jr. - Ernest Foss Jr. - Maurice C. Hallett 2nd - Robert J. Holdom
(Row 11) Lawrence H. King - Ralph A. Merigold - Thomas H. Rowland Jr. - Walter B. Sherwood - William P. Sullivan - Elwyn L. Taber Jr. - Roget P. Warfield - James R. Whitcomb - 1939 - Paul B. Dewitt
(Row 12) Joseph L. Egan Jr. - Henry B. Flanery - Raymond L. Frese - Philip W. Hiden Jr. - Herbert W.J. Illfelder - Theodore K. Johnson - William V. Jones - James M. Mathes Jr. - Lloyd W. Nash - John Newman
(Row 13) Charles H. Palmer - Sanderson Sloane - Herbert Vander Vate Jr. - Robert G. Whidden - Robert V. Yuell - 1940 - Walter I Bedell - Calvert S. Bowie - Hudson E. Brudge - Vivian R. Bruce Jr.
(Row 14) William S. Buttfield - Samuel M. Carver Jr. - Daniel R. Conway - James H. Cooke - Robert C. Demsey - Joseph J. Duncan Jr. - Philip S. Eddy - Richmond H. Ellis - Edward B. Giorchino - Robert A. Hale
(Row 15) Norbert B. Hamilton - Robert W. Herrick - Phillips G. Huddman - Henry G. Ingersoll Jr. - John J. Lamb - W. Duke Lyon - Joseph H. Maloy - James E. Murphy - John W. O'Neill - Benjamin D. Parker
(Row 16) Merrill A. Prentice - Derrol W. Rogers - James C. Ruch - Gerald M. Sullivan - John R. Upton - William W. Vroom - Harold D. Webster Jr. - 1941 - William C. Bailey - Adrian Beck - Nickerson Blood
(Row 17) John F. Brister - William E. Canniff - Clark Collins - J. Mado Crafts - William A. Dorney Jr. - Frank C. Dressner - Lindol F. Graham - David Gratz - Richard P. Howard - Richard P. Howland
(Row 18) Edward F. Hughes - Wallace T. Jones III - A. Reed King - George A. Ladd - John H. Lendo - R. - Bertram Mauro - Richard A. Messinger - John T. Munroe - Robert S. Nichols - James A. O'Hearn Jr. - John I Orr Jr.
(Row 19) Bruce C. Pelto - Ralph D. Shanesy Jr. - Jackman M. Shattuck - Philip A. Shribman - Philip R. Sleadd Jr. - George A. Taylor - J. Watson Taylor - Eugene M. Valentine - Richard Van Divort
(Row 20) William G. Werner - James H. Young Jr. - Warren R. Zeller - 1942 - David F. Bayle - Russell A. Britton Jr. - George T. Buchan - Orlando J. Buck - Robert O. Burns Jr. - Cady L. Daniels Jr.
(Row 21) David R. Dunlap Jr. - James G. Fowler - Donald Frothingham Jr. - Jay C. Griffith Jr. - John C. Henderson - Lawrence K. Hennessy - Walter A. Jacobs - Benjamin P. Joy - Richard A. Kersting
(Row 22) Howard A. Lamson - Philip A. Lee - William C. Melanson Jr. - Jacob R. Nunnemacher - Charles M. Pearson - Ralph Raclin - Lawrence J. Ritter - Erik Sand - David H. Skillin - Gordon S. Smith
(Row 23) Richard B. Stanton - Samuel M.B. Stonestreet - Thomas W. Symons III - Philip E. Thornton - Charles N. Todd - William G. Ward - Robert H. Wells - A. Gove Wilkins - Stanley P. Wright
(Row 24) 1943 - Walter B. Anderson - Ambrose F. Broughton Jr. - John F. Bushnell - William W. Cabell Jr. - John H. Card Jr. - Fred M. Carey - Emmett T. Corrigan - Remson H.R. Crego - Donald J. Harty
(Row 25) Robert H. Hobart - Lloyd S. Holton - Henry P. Inge Jr. - John W. Kearney - John H. Lawson Jr. - Richard V. Mieher - Frederic P. Rhoads - Stanley B. Sanberg - Richard D. Shapiro - John H. Smith
(Row 26) Arthur H. Stein Jr. - Willard Tostman - George C. Westerlind - Warren B. Williams - 1944 - George E. Barton - Rogers Blood - Joel F. Coffin III - Earle H. Cunningham Jr. - R. Vaughn Dargie
(Row 27) Richard M. Farnsworth - Jules B. Finnell Jr. - George L. Galbraith Jr. - Kevin Gough - James M. Hays - Robert B. Holman - Stephen W. Holmes - Houghton Letts - Edwin W. McGowan Jr.
(Row 28) William Mackoff - Robert E. Mulhern - Richard Redington - John M. Shellenberger Jr. - George C. Slusser - H. Kimball Urion Jr. - Ray T. Wilken Jr. - Frederick R. Wilfkuhler
(Row 29) Lloyd W. Wyatt Jr. - 1945 - John W. Ball - William M. Brick - Donald W. Bruce - R. Peter Brundage - Daniel T. Buckingham - Fletcher R. Burton Jr. - Philip J. Dermody - George D. Fix - Charles L. Friedman
(Row 30) Peter E. Geiger - Otto J. Griesar - James M. Kelly - Philip M. Lillie - William H. Nate - Robert K. Phillips - Harry W. Ritter - John L. Ryan - Richard W. Schultze - E. Ralph Sherrick Jr.
(Row 31) Robert B. Taylor - Roland V. Vaughn Jr. - Thomas A. Ward - Roget E. Washburn - Stephen D. Wetherby - 1946 - William F. Alworth - Robert W. Boyd - William A. Cortright - Donald L. Dellis
(Row 32) Jewel I. Dilsaver jr. - Roger D. Emerson - Louis C. Epstein - Richard D. Hewitt - Henry M. Kent - John D. Logan - Lawrence G. Lott - Richard P. McMahon - Charles W. Moncrief Jr. - John B. Murphy
(Row 33) C. Teale Rue - Edwin A. Stroh - David B. Todd - Robert A. Worten - John M. Zuck - 1947- David A. Aldom - Lester W. Bixby - Clarence P. Edmunds - Allan C. Norris

1913 - Rollo W. Hutchinson - 1919 - Paul W. Carrigan - 1936 - John B. Clark - 1938 - Bradford E. Tyndall - 1939 - Lester T. Chase - 1947 -Robert N. Wallis Jr. - 1949 - William J. Cook
Richard O. Parsons - Roger C. Wilde Jr. - 1950 - Alan M. Tarr - Wilfrid Wheeler - 1952 - Leon P. LaPointe 
1938 - Charles Weller Jr

"THE MOTHER KEEPS THEM IN HER HEART AND GUARDS THEIR ALTER FLAME
THE STILL NORTH REMEMBERS THEM, THE HILL WINDS KNOW THEIR NAME
AND THE GRANITE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE KEEPS THE RECORD OF THEIR FAME"


The names of 12 Dartmouth men who fell in what President Truman cautiously called the Korean "police action" then follow the dead of the Second World War.  No words signal where the plaque changes from one war to the other, but they are, in fact, differentiated by a small space that visually separates the two.  The Korean dead some from as extraordinary a range of classes as do those for World War II, from one man graduating in 1913 to another whose commencement came only in 1952.  Directly beneath this first, name bearing plaque a second one repeats the Hovey envoi found at Memorial Field, the one that is also the source for the brief and slightly modified quotation with which the Class of 1945 ends its plaques.  In the present instance, however, each line Combines two from Hovey's original.

To those who came of age only after the 1940s and '50s, this linkage of the Second World War with Korea will seem confusing, but at the time it makes considerable sense.  Only five years separate the two wars; many American combatants in the second one were veterans of the first; and the causes of Korea were in large part to be found in the decisions at the end of World War II to divide the country into zones, American and Soviet, at the 38th parallel.  Indeed, that the United States was able to intervene so quickly in 1950 resulted from the fact that it continued to have a considerable army of occupation in Japan.  Thus the linkage created by the first of these plaques becomes logical and understandable. It has to be said, though, that if Korea is often called American's forgotten war, while that's demonstrably not the case a Dartmouth, the way in which the Korean dead are placed without specific differentiation at the bottom of a plaque overwhelmingly devoted to the fall of World War II does make it appear as though the war in which they died was little more than a footnote.

World War II Wartime Class Plaques
Situated on the curved brick wall to the south east of the Zahm Courtyard and to the right of the Class of 1943 Reflecting Pool and Sculpture as one faces it are five blackened bronze plaques, one from each of the classes to graduate during U.S.-declared hostilities in World War II: 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, and 1945.  These five plaques follow in the vein of the Class of 1910 Plaque at memorial field, recognizing the enduring memory of fallen classmates in the consciousness of their particular class.  For these five classes, the war was a present fact of their time at Dartmouth and with the exception of the Class of 1940 (which lost more members in World War II than the Classes of 1944 and 1945), these five classes also paid a higher cost in total lives lost in war than than any other in Dartmouth's history.

The plaques' construction suggests coordination on their purchase, but not the design. While the plaques are the the same size, shape, color, and bear the same font and anomalous use of lower case, each is laid out in a different way, with different sized lettering, honoring different groups using different terms. The Plaques of 1942, 1944, and 1945 list the members of their classes who died in the war -- referred to on each as "WWII" -- while the Plaques of 1941 and 1943 reference their fallen in the collective and choose to spell out the war's name.  Only the 1943 Plaque mentions the Korean War, though none of their members, nor any of the other four classes died there, while many likely served.  Two of the plaques reference only the deceased members of the class, while the other three also celebrate those who "served", recognizing sacrifice beyond that of mortal nature. Lastly, there is variation in how the plaques describe the deaths of classmates, stating alternatively that they "gave their lives" in the war or for their country, "lost their lives" in the war, or "died for World Peace." Each construction conveys a subtlety different take on the nature of the sacrifice, which may or may not have been intended on the part of the authors.

 
In heartfelt memory of
our thirty-six classmates
who gave their lives
in World War II;
and to recognize all
who served.

 







 THE CLASS OF 1941



 
In memory of our classmates
who lost their lives in WWII

We must 
not forget them.

 David F. Bayle
Russell A. Britton Jr.
George T. Buchan
Orlando J. Buck
Robert O. Burns Jr.
Cady L. Daniels Jr.
David R. Dunlap Jr.
James G. Fowler

 Donald Frothingham Jr.
Jay C. Griffith Jr.
John C. Henderson
Lawrence K. Hennessy
Walter A. Jacobs
Benjamin P. Joy
Richard A. Kersting
Howard A. Lamson
Philip A. Lee
William C. Melanson Jr.
Jacob R. Nunnemacher
Charles M. Pearson
Ralph Raclin
Lawrence J. Ritter
Erik Sand
David H. Skillin
Gordon S. Smith
Richard B. Stanton 
 Samuel M.B. Stonestreet
Thomas W. Symons 3rd
Philip E. Thornton
Charles N. Todd
William G. Ward
Robert H. Wells
A. Gove Wilkins
Stanley P. Wright


The Class of 19
42


 
 To the memory of the men 
of the Dartmouth Class of 1943
who served, and those who died
for World Peace in the Armed Forces
during World War II and the Korean War.

 
 
 In memory of the 23 members
of the Class of 1944
who gave their lives for their country in WWII

 George E. Barton
Rogers Blood
Joel F. Coffin III
Earle H. Cunningham Jr.
R. Vaughn Dargie
Richard M. Farnsworth
Jules B. Finnell Jr.
George L. Galbraith Jr.
Kevin Gough
James M. Hays
Robert B. Holman
Stephen W. Holmes 
 Houghton Letts
Edwin W. McGowan
William Mackoff
Robert E. Mulhern
Richard Redington
John M. Shellenberger
 George C. Slusser
H. Kimball Urion
Ray T. Wilken
Frederick R. Wilfkuhler
Lloyd W. Wyatt



 
 The Class of 1945 honors their men who
served in WWII and those who gave their lives
for their country.

 John W. Ball
William M. Brick
Donald W. Bruce
R. Peter Brundage
Daniel T. Buckingham
Fletcher R. Burton
Philip J. Dermody
George D. Fix
Charles L. Friedman
Peter E. Geiger
Otto J. Griesar
James M. Kelly 
Philip M. Lillie
William H. Nate
Robert K. Phillips
Harry W. Ritter
John L. Ryan
Richard W. Schultze 
 E. Ralph Sherrick
Robert B. Taylor
Roland V. Vaughn
Thomas A. Ward
Roget E. Washburn
Stephen D. Wetherby
 


Vietnam War
Dartmouth's Vietnam memorial, first conceived as a senior class project by Theodore J. Arnold '78, was originally housed in Collis Center, but it was then moved to the Zahm Courtyard to make it more accessible to people other than students.  Without a doubt, it is the college's most remarkable tribute to its war dead and, for many people, it's most moving as well.  In a sense that it even exists seems most remarkable of all, for... communities tend not to create memorials for wars about which they are badly divided as Dartmouth found itself being about Vietnam.  Indeed, insofar as this memorial was presented to the college in June 1978 as the joint gift of the Classes of 1958, 1968, and 1978, those divisions were probably deeper among the donors than they were within the Dartmouth Community as a whole.  That is, given the time period in which American involvement in the Vietnam War was at its height, 1965-1972, it is apparent that each of these classes has--and probably still has--a quite different relationship to the war.  Moreover, in 1978, because the final victory of North Vietnam has come only three years earlier, the wounds to Dartmouth's body politic had scarcely had time to heal.

The memorial, a statue, addresses these issues in at least two ways.  First of all, the statue itself is entirely abstract, a free-form composition of stone and once-molten metal that, slag and all, has assumed tortured form as it cooled.  Yet the resulting figure also contains a few random veins of gold, and revealed at it center is a polished, dark, and seemingly non-metallic ball.  Given its position, the ball takes on a womb-like character, suggestively so.  The more one looks, the more haunted the statue becomes, but when one asks about its possible meaning, it quickly becomes apparent that this is not a question for which the memorial has a definitive answer.  As a result, the statue creates a mood sufficiently ambiguous to convey the views of both supporters of the war and its opponents.

The second way in which the memorial addresses a divided community becomes apparent in the language used on the plaque attached to the statue's base, language that confines itself to the one subject on which everyone could agree:

 
IN MEMORY OF THOSE DARTMOUTH MEN
WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES IN THE ARMED FORCES, 1965-1972

 
THE WOODS ARE LOVELY, DARK AND DEEP.
BUT I HAVE PROMISES TO KEEP,
AND MILES TO GO BEFORE I SLEEP,...
ROBERT FROST
Michael M. Spark '46
Kenneth W. Hall '48
Robert M. Magown '49
John M. Leaver Jr. '55
Gardner Brewer '56
John A. Ebers '61
Michael McC. Joslin '63
Richard H. Monson '63
Peter W. Morrison '64
William B. Nickerson '64
P. Dennis Barger '65
Jack G. Livingston '65
Stephen S. MacVean '65
John C. Seel '65
Eric P. Muller '66
Dvid L. Nicholas '66
Duncan B. Sleigh '67
William S. Smoyer '67
Alexander E. McCarthy '68
J. Robert Peacock II '68
John L. Hogan '69

DEDICATED BY THE CLASSES OF 1958, 1968, AND 1978        -        JUNE 1978
 

Although this working transforms Vietnam into a war that dares not speak its name, few viewers will miss the coded reference to it in the years cited even though some may fail to notice the way in which the traditional theme of an honored sacrifice for one's country is equally missing.  Yet this double omission has an unexpectedly unifying effect because it avoids all the contentious issues while emphasizing the simple fact that this memorial has one purpose and one purpose only: to honor the 21 Dartmouth men listed on its plaque, not to celebrate either the war in which they died or the name of the country in whose armed forces they fought.

The plaque also addresses one distinctly non-Vietnamese issue in a way that most viewers will miss.  That is, since World War I Dartmouth has consistently relied on "Men or Dartmouth" for language to honor its was dead with appropriate solemnity, but in 1972 the college began formally to admit women.  Unsurprisingly, with the advent of coeducation Hovey's words began to appear exclusionary, sexist, and therefore resented by more and more of the campus community.  Indeed, by the Commencement of 1978, the one at which the Vietnam memorial was formally presented, many women as joined by sympathetic men were refusing to stand for the singing of what was officially still their College's song.  In this context, "Men of Dartmouth" rapidly became as unusable on the Vietnam Memorial as was the name "Vietnam" itself.  So, to that other Dartmouth-related poet were the classes of 1958, 1968, and 1978 to turn for appropriate solace?  The plaque's answer comes midway through the names of the 21 fallen and just to their left.

Whatever else may be said, Robert Frost is surely a greater poet than Richard Hovey, and while these lines are so familiar that they often seem little more than a cliché, in the context of Dartmouth's Vietnam dead they take on all the power and freshness they must have had at their creation.  Indeed, insofar as the poem's repeated last line is here replaced by ellipses, the way in which the quotation's incompleteness is thereby stressed also serves to emphasize the parallel incompleteness of 21 Dartmouth lives.  Metaphorically, then, in "stopping by woods on a snowy evening," these young men suffer the tragedy of having to leave promises unkept only because of premature deaths that unexpectedly deny the very possibility of miles to go before their sleep.  Seldom has a war memorial offered more solace even as it drives home the tragic waste of war by making it more personal.

Italicized text by Charles T. Wood
The Hill Winds Know Their Names: A Guide to Dartmouth's War Memorials (2001)
(c) Trustees of Dartmouth College
 

The Dartmouth Vietnam Project brings together members of the Dartmouth community to conduct, record, and preserve oral histories about the Vietnam War era (1950-1975). The online archive of interviews is a joint collaboration between current Dartmouth students and members of our community including alumni, faculty and staff, parents, families, and Upper Valley residents who have volunteered to share their stories and memories of the war and its impact on American society. Click here for more information. View the video here.